Xylariales » Xylariales genera incertae sedis » Melanographium

Melanographium phoenicis

Melanographium phoenicis S.N. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu, in Hyde et al., Fungal Diversity 100: 235 (2020)

Index Fungorum number: IF557001         Facesofungi number: FoF 06504

Etymology: The epithet refers to the genus of the host plant, Phoenix.

Holotype: MFLU18-1587


Saprobic on decaying rachides of palm (Phoenix paludosa). Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies on the substratum superficial, effuse, tufted, black. Mycelium immersed, composed of branched, septate, smooth, pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores 125–170 μm long (x̄ =147.7 μm, n=20), 3.5–6.5 μm wide (x̄ =5.5 μm, n=20), macronematous, 3–5 in loose fared fascicle or rarely single, unbranched, multi-septate, thick-walled, smooth, slightly geniculate near the apex, straight or fexuous, with percurrent proliferation that is often nodose, brown below, becoming pale brown above to subhyaline at the tip. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, integrated, terminal and intercalary, cylindrical, cicatrized, intercalary conidiogenous loci often at the nodose proliferations, with conidiogenous scars. Conidia 11–18 μm long (x̄ =14.4 μm, n=30), 6–9 μm wide (x̄ =7.9 μm, n=50), holoblastic, solitary, aseptate, olivaceous to dark brown, reniform or obovoid, with a subhyaline longitudinal germ-slit on the convex side, guttulate, verruculose, smooth-walled. Conidial secession schizolytic.

Culture characteristics: Conidia germinated on PDA within 24 h and been transferred to MEA. Colonies growing on MEA, velvety, with fat surface, frstly whitish, and becoming olive to grey-green or light grey-green. Mycelium superfcial and partially immersed, branched, septate, hyaline to pale brown, smooth. Conidia produced in culture smaller than that found in substrate, 8.2–14.5 μm long (x̄ =11.7 μm, n=10), 5.9–8.7 μm wide (x̄ =6.9 μm, n=10).


Material examined: THAILAND, Trat Province, Koh Chang, on decaying rachides of Phoenix paludosa Roxb. (Arecaceae), 27 April 2017, S.N. Zhang, SNT116 (MFLU 18-1587, holotype); KUN-HKAS102208, isotype, ex-type living culture MFLUCC 18-1481.


GenBank Accession No: ITS=MN482677, LSU=MN482678, SSU=MN482679, TEF1-α=MN481518


Notes: Most Melanographium species were found from palms (Ellis 1963; Goh and Hyde 1997; Somrithipol and Jones 2005) including M. phoenicis, which was collected from Phoenix paludosa (mangrove date palm). Morphological characters of M. phoenicis ft well with Melanographium. Conidiophores of M. phoenicis arise in a loose fared fascicle, which is similar to M. indicum Saikia & A.K. Sarbhoy (Saikia and Sarbhoy 1981), but it difers from the latter species because it has shorter conidiophores with obvious conidiogenous scars, and verrucose conidia. According to the key to Melanographium species in Somrithipol and Jones (2005), M. phoenicis is close to M. palmicola Goh & K.D. Hyde and M. spinulosum (Speg.) S. Hughes because of the verrucose conidia. However, M. phoenicis difers from M. palmicola as the conidiophores of the latter species are in widely divergent fascicles. The colour and size of conidia also distinguish M. phoenicis from M. spinulosum, M. phoenicis has olivaceous to dark brown conidia, while M. spinulosum is characterised by dark reddish-brown conidia. Multigene phylogenetic analyses in this study (Fig. 153) showed M. phoenicis belongs to Xylariales but is of uncertain familial placement. Therefore, we consider Melanographium belongs to Xylariales genus incertae sedis.


Figure X. Melanographium phoenicis (MFLU18-1587, holotype). a–c Colonies on natural substratum. d, e Conidiophores with conidiogenous cells bearing condia, note (e) conidiophores in loose flared fascicles. f Conidiophores in loosely fascicles. g–i Attached conidia at the proliferation of conidiophores that often at nodose. j Conidiogenous cells with conidiogenous scars. k, l Conidia. m Colony on PDA. n–p Conidia producing in culture. Scale bars: a–c = 100 μm, d–f = 50 μm, g, h, k, l = 10 μm, i, j = 20 μm, n–p = 5 μm


Reference: Hyde KD, Dong Y, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Jones EB, Liu NG, Abeywickrama PD, Mapook A, Wei D, Perera RH. Fungal diversity notes 1151–1276: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa.


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