Pleosporales » Leptosphaeriaceae » Plenodomus

Plenodomus sinensis

Plenodomus sinensis Phookamsak, A. Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde, in Phookamsak et al., Fungal Diversity: 10.1007/s13225-019-00421-w, [24] (2019)

Index Fungorum number: IF556137         Facesoffungi number: FoF05701


Sexual morph: Ascomata 250–290 µm high, 300–360 µm diam., black, shiny, scattered, gregarious, semi-immersed to erumpent through host epidermis, subglobose to subconical, uni-loculate, glabrous, ostiolate. Peridium thick-walled of unequal thickness, thickened at base, thinner toward sides and apex, composed of three type cell layers, inner layer 5–20 µm wide, comprising 2–3 strata of flattened, pale brown, thin-walled, pseudoparenchymatous cells, arranged in textura angularis to textura prismatica, middle layer 25–100 µm wide, comprising several strata, of hyaline, thick-walled, scleroplectenchymatous cells of textura angularis to textura globulosa, outer layer thin-walled, comprising 1 stratum, of black, coriaceous cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising filamentous, septate, 2–4 µm wide, anastomosed pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci (75–)80–95(–107) × (8.5–)9–11(–12) µm (x̄ = 88.1 × 10.3, n = 30), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, subsessile to short pedicellate, with knob-like to truncate pedicel, apically rounded, with well-developed ocular chamber. Ascospores 30–39 × 4–6(–6.5) µm (x̄ = 34.1 × 5.3, n = 40), overlapping 2–3-seriate, fusiform, initially hyaline, becoming pale brown to pale yellowish at maturity, 6-septate, widest at the third cell, slightly constricted at the septa, deeply constricted at the third septum from above, smooth-walled, inconspicuous minute appendages at both end cells. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Conidiomata 50–120 µm high, 50–110 µm diam., pycnidial, black, shiny, scattered, gregarious, superficial, uni-loculate, globose to subglobose, with short stipe (5–10 × 7–11 µm), glabrous, ostiole central, with pore-like opening, apapillate. Conidiomata walls 5–10 lm wide, thin-walled, of equal thickness, comprising 2–3 cell layers, of dark brown pseudoparenchymatous cells, of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells (3–)4–7 (–8) × 4–6(–8) µm (x̄ = 5.6 × 5.1 µm, n = 30), enteroblastic, phialidic, discrete, determinate, ampulliform to doliiform, hyaline, collarette, and periclinal wall thickening, arising from the inner cavity of the conidioma wall. Conidia (2.7–)3–4 × 1–2 µm (x̄ = 3.8 × 1.4, n = 100), hyaline, oblong, slightly curved, aseptate, smooth-walled.


Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 28–30 mm diam. after 4 weeks at room temperature. Colony dense, irregular in shape, slightly raised to low convex, surface smooth, edge undulate, with margin well-defined; from above dark grey; from below, black; not produced pigmentation on agar medium.


Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Lijiang, Yulong, on dead fronds of fern, 29 July 2015, R. Phookamsak, LJ001 (KUN-HKAS 102229, sexual morph), living culture, KUMCC 18-0153; ibid., Baoshan, Shuizai, Dawazi mountain, on dead fronds of fern, 22 October 2015, I.D. Goonasekara, BS010 (KUN-HKAS 102228, asexual morph), living culture, KUMCC 18-0152; Baoshan, Shuizai, Dawazi mountain, on dead stems of Cirsium sp. (Asteraceae), 22 October 2015, R. Phookamsak, BS023 (KUN-HKAS 102227).


Known hosts and distribution: Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) (Xishuangbanna, China) (Tennakoon et al. 2017).




GenBank Accession No: ITS: MK387922, LSU: MK387960, SSU: MK387930, TEF1-a: MK435602, RPB2: MK435608 (KUMCC 18-0153); ITS: MK387923, LSU: MK387961, SSU: MK387931, TEF1-a: MK435603 (KUMCC 18-0152); ITS: MK387924, LSU: MK387962, SSU: MK387932 (KUN-HKAS 102227).


Notes: Based on the NCBI BLASTn search of ITS sequences, our isolates (KUMCC 18-0152, KUMCC

18-0153 and KUN-HKAS 102227) match with Plenodomus sinensis Tennakoon et al. (MFLU 17-0757), with 99% similarity. The sexual morph of KUMCC 18-0153 and KUN-HKAS 102227 share similar size of ascomata, asci and ascospores with the type, as well as sharing similar ascospore characters with fusiform, 6-septate ascospores (Tennakoon et al. 2017). Phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated LSU, SSU and ITS sequence dataset reveal that our isolates cluster with P. sinensis (MFLU17-0757) with moderate support (86% ML and 0.90 BYPP). The asexual morph of P. sinensis, which is reported for the first time in this study, is similar to the asexual morph of P. lijiangensis in having globose to subglobose conidiomata with a short stipe. However, these two species are phylogenetically distinct. Tennakoon et al. (2017) introduced Plenodomus sinensis as a saprobic species occurring on Plukenetia volubilis and Tamarindus indica from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China (tropical rain forest climate). In this study, P. sinensis was found on ferns and Cirsium sp. from Baoshan (mild subtropical highland climate) and Lijiang (a mild, with abundant rainfall and plenty of sunshine climate), Yunnan, China. This indicates that P. sinensis may occur on a wide range of hosts and in different climatic regions.

Figure X. Plenodomus sinensis (KUN-HKAS 102229, sexual morph). a Ascomata on host. b Vertical section of ascoma. c Section through peridium. d Pseudoparaphyses. e–g Ascospores. h Ascospore germination. i–k Asci. Scale bars a = 200 µm, b = 100 µm, c = 50 µm, d, i–k = 20 µm, e–h = 10 µm.


Reference: Phookamsak R, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, et al. (2019) Fungal diversity notes 929–1035: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungi. Fungal Diversity (2019) 95:1–273


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"The future of specialist fungi in a changing climate: baseline data for generalist and specialist fungi associated with ants Rhododendron species and Dracaena species"

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