Pleosporales » Didymosphaeriaceae » Torula

Torula gaodangensis

Torula gaodangensis J. Yang & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Diversity 87: 113 (2017)                  

Facesoffungi number: FoF 03288


Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies immersed to superficial on host substrate, dark brown to black, sparse, difficult to see on host. Mycelium 0.8–1.5 μm wide, comprised branched, smooth, hyaline to pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores 1–4 × 1–2.5 μm ( = 2 × 1.6 μm, n = 30) macronematous, mononematous, erect, straight or flexuous, pale brown to brown, ellipsoidal to ampulliform, or oblong, aseptate, unbranched, smooth and thin-walled, with a darkened scar at the apex connecting with conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 1–3 × 2–3 μm ( = 2.4 × 2.8 μm, n = 30), monoblastic-acropetal, integrated, terminal, inflated, subglobose to oblate-sphaeroid, with flattened base, collapsing at apex, dark brown, verruculose. Conidia (4.5–)6–11(–12) × 2.5–3 μm ( = 9.5 × 2.8 μm, n = 30), acrogenous, brown to dark brown, subcylindrical or vermiform, slightly wider at the middle cell, narrower towards the end cell, straight or curved, 2–8-septate, constricted at the septa, apically rounded, base truncate, with a darkened scar and central pore at the base, verruculose.


Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA reaching 40 mm diam. after one week at room temperature (20–25 °C) in normal light, dense, circular, floccose to fluffy, surface smooth, edge entire, raised to low convex, effuse hyphae, slightly radiated, colony from above grey to brown, from below, brown at the margin, dark brown to black in the centre; not producing pigments in PDA.


Host and habitat: On submerged decaying wood (Hyde et al. 2017), Rosaceae (Hyde et al. 2020)


Known host and distribution: China


Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Kunming City, Kunming Institute of Botany (102° 44′ 19″ E, 25° 8′ 27″ N; 1951 m ± 3.00 m), on dead branch of Malus sp. (Rosaceae), 18 August 2018, R. Phookamsak, KIB050 (MFLU 20-0071), living culture, KUMCC 19-0113.


GenBank Accession No: ITS: MN994339, LSU: MN994340, SSU: MN994341, TEF1-α: MT005777, RPB2: MT005772.


Notes: In NCBI BLASTn search based on ITS sequences, the closest match with Torula gaodangensis J. Yang & K.D. Hyde (MFLUCC 17-0234; GenBank no. NR_164486) with 99.43% similarity. The new collection resembles T. gaodangensis in having monoblastic-acropetal, dark brown, subglobose to oblate-sphaeroid conidiogenous cells, with flattened base and acrogenous, brown to dark brown, subcylindrical or vermiform, 2–8-septate, base truncate, with a darkened scar and central pore at the base, verruculose conidia. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, TEF1-α, RPB2 and ITS sequence dataset also showed that our strain clades with the type strain of T. gaodangensis with significant support (70% ML, 1.00 BYPP). We, hence, identify our strain as T. gaodangensis based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Hyde et al. (2017) introduced the species as a saprobe on submerged decaying wood in Suoluo River, from Guizhou Province, China. In this study, the species was found on dead branch of Malus sp. in terrestrial environment from Yunnan, China. Torula gaodangensis can survive in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats.




Figure X. Torula gaodangensis (MFLU 20-0071). a Appearance of colonies on host substrate. b, c Colonies on host substrate showing partly immersed mycelium and its erect conidiophores attached with conidia.  d–f  Conidiophores  and  conidiogenous  cells.  g–l  conidia. Scale bars: b = 20 μm, c–l = 10 μm



Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Abreu VP, Bazzicalupo A, Chethana KT, Clericuzio M, Dayarathne MC, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, He MQ, Hongsanan S (2017) Fungal diversity notes 603–708: taxonomic and phylogenetic notes on genera and species. Fungal Divers 87:1-235

Hyde KD, Dong Y, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Jones EB, Liu NG, Abeywickrama PD, Mapook A, Wei D, Perera RH (2020) Fungal diversity notes 1151–1276: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa.





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Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI),

project entitled:

"The future of specialist fungi in a changing climate: baseline data for generalist and specialist fungi associated with ants Rhododendron species and Dracaena species"

(Grant No. DBG6080013)

"Impact of climate change on fungal diversity and biogeography in the Greater Mekong Sub-region"

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    1 Center of Excellence in Fungal Research
  • Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai
    57100 Thailand
  • 2 Kunming Institute of Botany
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences,
  • Honghe County 654400, Yunnan, China

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