Botryosphaeriales » Botryosphaeriaceae » Lasiodiplodia

Lasiodiplodia theobromae

Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 25: 57 (1909)

Index Fungorum number: IF188476         Facesoffungi number: FoF00167


Sexual morph: not established. Asexual morph: Conidiomata pycnidial, dark brown to black, solitary or clustered, convex on host tissue, uni to multi-loculate, immersed in the host becoming erumpent when mature. Paraphyses 1.5–3.5 μm wide, hyaline, septate, branched. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, cylindrical, phialidic. Conidia 19–25 × 10–16 (x̄ = 25 × 13 μm, n = 20), initially hyaline, aseptate, subovoid to ellipsoid-ovoid, with granular content, finally becoming dark brown, 1–septate at centre, thick-walled, upper cells wider than lower cells, truncate or rounded at the base, broadly rounded at the apex, with longitudinal striations from apex to base, guttulate.


Culture characteristics: Conidia germinating on PDA within 4–5 h. Colonies on PDA initially whitened in a few days, after 5–7 days becoming grey to black, filamentous, raised, fluffy, dense, reaching the edge of the Petri-dish after 2 days.


Habitat: Saprobic on dead leaf sheath of Phoenix roebelenii.


Known hosts: Barringtonia racemosa (Osorio et al. 2017), Eucalyptus amplifolia (Mehl et al. 2017), Leucospermum sp. (Marincowitz et al. 2008), Mangifera indica (Mehl et al. 2017), Pandanus sp. (Tibpromma et al. 2018a), Pistacia vera, Prunus domesticus (Inderbitzin et al. 2010), Tectona grandis (Doilom et al. 2015, 2017b), Terminalia catappa (Begoude et al. 2010), Vachellia karroo (Jami et al. 2015), Vitex donniana (Slippers et al. 2004), Vitis vinifera (Van Niekerk et al. 2004), Phoenix roebelenii (Hyde et al. 2020), For more information see Farr & Rossman (2020).


Known distribution: Widely distributed in Asia, Africa, America, Europe (Farr and Rossman 2020): e.g. Papua New Guinea (Phillips et al. 2005), South Africa (Gauteng) (Jami et al. 2015), (KwaZulu-Natal) (Osorio et al. 2017, Begoude et al. 2010), (Limpopo) (Mehl et al. 2017), (Western Cape) (Van Niekerk et al. 2004), Uganda (Slippers et al. 2004), USA (Arizona, California) (Inderbitzin et al. 2010), (Florida) (Mehl et al. 2017), (Hawaii) (Marincowitz et al. 2008), Thailand (Tibpromma et al. 2018a), (Phayao Province) (Doilom et al. 2015, 2017b), China (Tennakoon et al. 2016).


Material examined: Thailand, Chiang Mai Province, Sansai District, on dead leaf sheath of Phoenix roebelenii (Arecaceae), 2 February 2012, M. Doilom & R. Phookamsak (MFLU 19–1559, new host record), living culture (MFLUCC 12–0173).


GenBank Accession No: ITS: MN582743, TEF1: MN629743.

Notes: Lasiodiplodia theobromae has been recorded on numerous host plants in Thailand such as Hevea brasiliensis, Licuala longicalycata, Pandanus sp. and Tectona grandis (Pinruan et al. 2007, Seephueak et al. 2011, Doilom et al. 2015, 2016, 2017b, Tibpromma et al. 2018a, Farr & Rossman 2020). The species is also known on several palm species such as Phoenix canariensis in Florida, P. dactylifera in Egypt, India, Oman, Venezuela, and P. hanceana in China and Hong Kong (Anonymous 1960, Mathur 1979, Lu et al. 2000, Zhuang 2001, El-Deeb et al. 2007, Al-Sadi et al. 2013, Li et al. 2018, Farr & Rossman 2020). However, it has not yet been reported on Phoenix roebelenii (palm) in Thailand (Farr & Rossman 2020). We identify specimen (MFLU 19–1559) as L. theobromae based on morphology and phylogeny. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequence data of ITS and tef1 showed that our strain (MFLUCC 12–0173) clustered with the ex-neotype strain of L. theobromae (CBS 164.96) and other strains of L. theobromae with good 173 support (Fig. 110, 69% MP/ 95% ML). This is a new host record of Lasiodiplodia theobromae on Phoenix roebelenii in Thailand.

Figure X.  Lasiodiplodia theobromae (MFLU 19–1559, new host record). a Conidiomata on host substrate. b Vertical section through conidioma. c Conidiogenous cells with paraphyses. d Conidia attached to conidiogenous cells. e Immature conidium. f–i Mature conidia. j Germinated conidium. k, l Colony on PDA (k from above view, l from below view). Notes: c, e stained in lactophenol cotton blue. Scale bars: b = 50 µm, c, d = 10 µm, e–i = 5 µm, j = 20 µm.

Reference: Hyde KD, de Silva NI, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, et al. (2020) AJOM new records and collections of fungi: 1–100. Asain Journal of Mycology 3(1):22–294.


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    1 Center of Excellence in Fungal Research
  • Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai
    57100 Thailand
  • 2 Kunming Institute of Botany
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences,
  • Honghe County 654400, Yunnan, China

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